abstract = "Many optimisation problems require the satisfaction of
constraints in addition to their objectives. When using
an evolutionary algorithm to solve such problems, these
constraints can be enforced in many different ways to
ensure that legal solutions (phenotypes) are evolved.
We have identified eleven ways to handle constraints
within various stages of an evolutionary algorithm.
Five of these methods are experimented on a run-time
error constraint in a Genetic Programming system. The
results are compared and analysed.",
notes = "PPSN-V Fifth International Conference on Parallel
Problem Solving from Nature